Table 4.4

The Governors: Powers


  Budget making power Item veto power  
FIPS State or other
jurisdiction
Full
responsibility
Shares
responsibility
Governor has line
item veto power
Governor has
line item veto
power on
appropriations
amounts
Governor has
line item veto
power on
appropriations
language
Governor has
no item veto
power
Legislative votes
required to
override
governor's veto
Authorization for
reorganization through
executive order (a)
01Alabama✓ (b)Majority elected
02AlaskaThree-fourths
04Arizona✓ (b)Two-thirds elected
05ArkansasMajority elected
06California✓ (b)Two-thirds elected✓(c)
08ColoradoTwo-thirds elected
09Connecticut*Two-thirds elected✓(d)
10Delaware*✓(b)Three-fifths elected
12Florida*Two-thirds elected
13GeorgiaTwo-thirds elected
15HawaiiTwo-thirds elected
16Idaho*Two-thirds elected
17Illinois*Three-fifths elected
18Indiana*Majority elected
19IowaTwo-thirds elected
20Kansas*Two-thirds elected
21Kentucky✓(b)Majority elected
22Louisiana*Two-thirds elected✓(e)
23Maine*Majority elected
24MarylandMajority elected
25Massachusetts*Two-thirds elected✓(c)
26Michigan*✓(f)Two-thirds elected
27Minnesota*Two-thirds elected✓(g)
28Mississippi*✓(h)Two-thirds elected
29Missouri✓(b)Two-thirds elected
30MontanaTwo-thirds elected✕ (i)
31NebraskaThree-fifths elected
32Nevada*✓(b)Two-thirds elected✓(j)
33New Hampshire✓(b)(q)Two-thirds elected
34New Jersey✓(b)Two-thirds elected✓ (k)
35New MexicoTwo-thirds elected
36New York*Two-thirds elected
37North Carolina*Three-fifths elected✓(l)
38North Dakota*Two-thirds elected
39OhioThree-fifths elected
40OklahomaTwo-thirds elected✓(m)
41OregonTwo-thirds elected
42Pennsylvania*Two-thirds elected
44Rhode Island*Three-fifths elected
45South CarolinaTwo-thirds elected
46South Dakota*Two-thirds elected
47Tennessee*Two-thirds elected
48Texas*Two-thirds elected
49UtahTwo-thirds elected
50Vermont*Two-thirds elected
51Virginia*Two-thirds elected✓(n)
53WashingtonTwo-thirds elected
54West Virginia✓(r)Majority elected
55Wisconsin✓(b)✓(p)✓(p)Two-thirds elected
56WyomingTwo-thirds elected
60American Samoa*
66Guam*Two-thirds elected
69CNMI* *Two-thirds elected
72Puerto Rico*Two-thirds elected✓(o)
78U.S. Virgin Islands*Two-thirds elected

Source:

The Council of State Governments' survey of governors' offices, 2022.

Key:

* — Information from The Council of State Governments’ survey of governors’ offices and review of state websites, 2021.
** — Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands.
✓ — Yes provision for.
✕ — No provision.

Footnotes:

(a) For additional information on executive orders, see Table 4.5
(b) Full responsibility to propose; legislature adopts or revises and governor signs or vetoes.
(c) Authorization for reorganization provided for in state constitution.
(d) Governor cannot create a budgeted agency but may "direct such action by the several budgeted agencies as will, in his judgment, effect efficiency and economy in the conduct of the affairs of the state government."
(e) Only for agencies and offices within the Governor's Office.
(f) Governor has sole authority to propose annual budget. No money may be paid out of state treasury except in pursuance of appropriations made by law and passed by the legislature.
(g) Statute provides for reorganization by the Commissioner of Administration with the approval of the governor.
(h) Governor has the responsibility of presenting a balanced budget. The budget is based on revenue estimated by the Governor's office and the Legislative Budget Committee.
(i) The office of the governor shall continuously study and evaluate the organizational structure, management practices, and functions of the executive branch and of each agency. The governor shall, by executive order or other means within the authority granted to him, take action to improve the manageability of the executive branch.
(j) Only as to commissions, boards and councils.
(k) Executive reorganization plans can be disapproved by majority vote in both houses of the legislature.
(l) Executive Order must be approved by the legislature if changes affect existing law.
(m) The governor has the authority, through state statute, to enact executive orders that: create agencies, boards and commissions; and reassigns agencies, boards and commissions to different cabinet secretaries. However, in order for the continued operation of any agency created by executive order the state legislature must approve legislation that allows the agency to continue to operate, if not, the agency cannot continue operation beyond sine die adjournment of the legislature for the session.
(n) The governor submits a reorganization plan to the General Assembly which must approve the plan by a vote of a majority of the membership in each house.
(o) Only if it is not prohibited by law
(p) In Wisconsin, the governor has "partial" veto over appropriation bills. The partial veto is broader than item veto
(q) The governor and the Executive Council have oversight and control functions on state expenditures.
(r) The Governor has line item veto power only over appropriations and budget bills. To override these vetoes, 2/3 of each house of the Legislature must vote to override. A majority is necessary to override general law (non-budget or -appropriations bills) bills.