Table 7.14

State Budget Calendars

  Legal source of budget  
FIPS State or other
Budget instructions
sent to agencies
Agency requests
submitted to governor
Agency requests
submitted to
legislature (if
Public hearings held Governor submits budget
to legislature
Legislature convenes Legislature adopts
Governor signs
Fiscal year begins Constitutional Statutory Extended budget
deadline for new
governors (a)
introduced as
bill(s) in legislature
Budget proposal
developed by
joint legislative body (b)
Votes required to
pass budget
Frequency of
legislative cycle
Annual budget
Biennial budget
cycle (first fiscal
year of biennium) (c)
01Alabama (d)SeptemberNovemberNovemberFebruary


FebruaryFebruary/MayMayOctober 1Majority electedAnnual
02Alaska (e)JulyOctoberJanuary/April

December 15

3rd Tuesday in JanuaryAprilApril/JuneJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
04Arizona (f)JulySeptember 1September 1

5 days after legislature convenes

2nd Monday of JanuaryNo official deadlineNo official deadlineJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
05Arkansas (g)MayJulyOct/December


January/FebruaryJanuary/AprilJanuary/AprilJuly 1Three-fourths electedAnnualEven
06California (h)April - NovemberSeptemberFebruary - June

January 10

JanuaryJune 15June 27July 1Majority electedAnnual
08Colorado (i)MarchJuly 15November 1Begin in November.

November 1

2nd Wednesday of JanuaryLate AprilVaries (see notes)July 1Majority electedAnnual
09Connecticut (j)JulySeptemberFebruary - May


January/FebruaryJune/MayJune/MayJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
10Delaware (k)JulyOctoberNovember

On or before February 1

JanuaryBy June 30By July 1July 1Majority electedAnnual
12FloridaJune / JulySeptember / OctoberSeptember or OctoberOctober - February

30 days prior to session

January or MarchMarch/April/MayApril/May/JuneJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
13Georgia (l)Mid-JulySeptember 1January/February

2nd Week of January

2nd Monday in JanuaryLate March - Early AprilMayJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
15Hawaii (m)July / AugustSeptemberJanuary


3rd Wednesday of JanuaryApril / MayMayJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
16Idaho (n)Not later than July 15Not later than September 1Not later than September 1

January (5 days after legislature convenes)

2nd Monday of JanuaryFebruary through March5 days after bill receipt or 10 days after adjournmentJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
17IllinoisSeptember / OctoberOctober / NovemberThird Friday of FebruaryFebruary - May

3rd Wednesday of February

2nd Wednesday of JanuaryLate May60 days after received from legislatureJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
18IndianaEarly SummerBefore September 1November - April

2nd Monday of January

By 2nd Monday of JanuaryNo later than April 29th7 days after presentmentJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
19IowaJune / JulyOctober 1October 1December

By February 1

2nd Monday in JanuaryApril/MayMayJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
20Kansas (o)JuneSeptemberSeptemberFebruary, March, April


JanuaryMayMayJuly 1Majority electedAnnual(o)
21Kentucky (p)JulyNovember 15November 15

10th Legislative Day

Early JanuaryBy April 1510 days after presentmentJuly 1Majority electedAnnualOdd
22Louisiana (q)By September 20October 15 to November 15October 15 to November 15During legislative session

45 days before legislature convenes

2nd Monday in March (even years); 2nd Monday in April (odd years)Early June20 days after receipt of the billJuly 1(q)Annual
23Maine (r)JulySeptember 1See notes.January - May


January30 days prior adjournment10 days after legislative approvalJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven
24Maryland (s)JuneAugust - October

3rd Wednesday in January

2nd Wednesday in January83rd day of sessionNot applicableJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
25MassachusettsMid-NovemberEarly - Mid-December

Fourth Wednesday of January

First Wednesday of January of odd numbered yearsJuneJune-JulyJuly 1Majority electedBiennial
26Michigan (t)AugustOctoberFebruary - May

February (30 days after legislature convenes)

2nd Wednesday in JanuaryJuneJune/JulyOctober 1Majority electedAnnual
27Minnesota (u)May/JuneOctober 15

4th Tuesday in January

JanuaryMayMayJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
28Mississippi (v)JuneAugustAugustSeptember/October

November 15

JanuaryMarch/April5 days after approvalJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
29Missouri (w)JulyOctober 1October 1January/February

30 days after legislature convenes

1st Wednesday after the 1st Monday in January1st Friday following the 1st Monday in May45 days after legislature adjournsJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
30MontanaApril and AugustJune and September 1

November 15

1st Monday in JanuaryLate AprilTypically early MayJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven
31Nebraska (x)JulySeptember 15September 15February - April

By January 15

1st Wednesday after the 1st Monday in JanuaryMayJuneJuly 1Two-thirds electedAnnualEven
32Nevada (y)MarchBy September 1


1st Monday of FebruaryJuneJuneJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven
33New Hampshire (z)August 1October 1(z)November

February 15

DecemberMayJuneJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
34New Jersey (aa)SeptemberOctoberSee notes.

By 4th Tuesday in February

MarchOn or before June 30On or before June 30July 1Majority electedAnnual
35New Mexico (bb)June 15September 1September 1September-December

January 5; January 10

3rd Tuesday in JanuaryMid-Feb or early MarchEarly March or Early AprilJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
36New York (cc)August/ SeptemberOctober and NovemberNovember and December


JanuaryMarchBy April 1April 1Majority electedAnnual
37North Carolina (dd)OctoberDecember


JanuaryJune - AugustJune-AugustJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven
38North Dakota (ee)April / MayJuly/October

1st week of December

JanuaryAprilMayJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven
39Ohio (ff)JulyMid-September and mid-OctoberDecember 1(ff)

4 weeks after legislature convenes

1st Monday in January that is not a holidayJuneEnd of JuneJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven
40Oklahoma (gg)AugustOctober 1October 1February - May


February-MayMayMay/JuneJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
41OregonMarchSeptemberFebruary - March

December 1

FebruaryFebruary/JuneMay-AugustJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
42Pennsylvania (hh)AugustOctoberFebruary/MarchFebruary/March

1st full week in February

JanuaryBy June 30By June 30July 1Majority electedAnnual
44Rhode Island (ii)JulyOctober 1October 1February - April

January – 3rd Thursday

January - 1st TuesdayJuneJuneJuly 1Two-thirds electedAnnual
45South Carolina (jj)AugustSeptember/ OctoberNovemberOctober, February and April

January – within 5 days after session begins

January - 2nd TuesdayMay - 2nd ThursdayMay - 5 days after adopted by legislatureJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
46South Dakota (kk)June / JulyAugust 31November 1September


JanuaryMarch/AprilMarch/AprilJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
47Tennessee (ll)AugustEnd of September/ first of OctoberFebruaryNovember/ December

February 1

JanuaryBetween April and June10 days after Legislative signaturesJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
48TexasJuneJuly / SeptemberJuly/October

By the state of the state address

January (odd years)MayJuneSeptember 1Majority electedBiennialEven


JanuaryMarch20 days after session (late March or early April)July 1Majority electedAnnual
50Vermont (mm)August / SeptemberOctoberOctober/November

January – by 3rd Tuesday of the session

1st Wednesday after 1st Monday in JanuaryMayMay/JuneJuly 1Majority electedBiennial
51VirginiaAugustSeptember / October5 days after submission to executive


JanuaryMarch-AprilApril-MayJuly 1Majority electedAnnualOdd
53Washington (nn)June / SeptemberAugust / September or mid-October(nn)

By December 20

2nd Monday each JanuaryBetween April and June20 days after legislative passageJuly 1Majority electedAnnualEven
54West Virginia (oo)August (1st week)September 1September 1

January (2nd Wednesday)

JanuaryMarch5 days after Legislative passageJuly 1Majority electedAnnual
55Wisconsin (pp)JuneSeptemberSeptemberApril/May - Odd Year

January/ February

June/JulyJune/JulyJuly 1Majority electedBiennialEven

3rd Monday in November

JanuaryMarchMarchJuly 1Majority electedAnnualOdd
11Dist. of Columbia (qq)SeptemberDecemberFebruary - April


September 15 through July 15MayJuneJuly 1Majority electedAnnual


National Association of State Budget Officers, Budget Processes in the States, 2021.


✓ — Yes.
✕ — No/Not applicable.



Alabama – In the first year of the governor’s term, the regular session of the Legislature begins on the first Tuesday in March. The governor is required to introduce his/her budget by the second legislative day.

Connecticut – Newly elected governors receive an additional two weeks to submit a budget.

Florida – Section 216.162(1) Florida Statute: At least 30 days before the scheduled annual legislative session, or at a later date if requested by the governor and approved in writing by the president of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives.

Indiana – If a gubernatorial election has occurred then the deadline for the submission of the governor’s budget is extended by one week to the third Monday of January in odd numbered years.

Kansas – Newly elected governors have until the 21st day of the legislative session to submit a budget. Otherwise the deadline is the 8th day.

Kentucky – Five additional legislative days (deadline on 15th legislative day for a new governor).

Louisiana – No later than 30 days prior to the regular session of the legislature.

Maine – A Governor-elect elected to a first term of office shall transmit the budget document to the Legislature not later than the Friday following the first Monday in February of the first regular legislative session.

Maryland – Two additional days. Third Friday of January.

Massachusetts – Five weeks later than the usual deadline.

Michigan – A newly elected governor is allowed an additional 30 days, up to 60 days, to present the proposed budget after the legislature convenes in regular session.

Minnesota – A new governor is given until the 3rd Tuesday in February.

Mississippi – January 31.

Montana – Governor-elect budgets are submitted to the legislature by January 7 of the odd numbered year.

Nebraska – On or before February 1.

New Jersey – New governors may have their budget submission deadline extended with the agreement of the legislature (usually mid-March).

New York – In any year following a gubernatorial election, the governor may submit the budget on or before February 1.

Ohio – March 15.

Oregon – First day legisalture convenes.

Pennsylvania – In a governor’s first term, the governor’s budget is submitted the 1st full week in March.

Rhode Island – First Thursday of February vs. third Thursday of January in other years.

South Dakota – 10th legislative day.

Tennessee – March 1.

West Virginia – Extended to the 2nd Wednesday of February (usually the 2nd Wednesday of January).


Arizona – Budget proposal is usually developed before bills are introduced, usually in consultation with the governor.

Arkansas – The legislative body provides a recommendation during budget hearings, which are prior to session. The recommendation then becomes the bill, which will require chambers to vote for enactment.

Colorado – The Joint Budget Committee (JBC) is charged with studying the management, operations, programs, and fiscal needs of the agencies and institutions of Colorado state government.

Connecticut – Typically, the Appropriations Committee and Finance, Revenue and Bonding Committee (joint committees with both House and Senate membership) each develop legislative spending and revenue bills. While these typically do not form a comprehensive budget, inclusive of both the spending and revenue sides of the budget, they do form the basis for a legislative budget that can be offered in the absence of a comprehensive budget negotiated with the governor.

Delaware – The governor prepares recommended fiscal year operating budget and capital budget legislation that is introduced in the General Assembly by February 1 each year. The operating budget bill is assigned to the Joint Finance Committee and the capital budget is assigned to the Joint Legislative Committee on the Capital Improvements Program. Both committees hold hearings and deliberations on the legislation submitted by the governor and submits revised bills for consideration by the full General Assembly.

Mississippi – §27-103-113 requires the submission of a proposed budget to the Legislature by the Legislative Budget Office under the directives of the Joint Legislative Budget Committee.

Montana – The budget is broken up into six subcommittees by policy areas. These subcommittees are made of up members of the House Appropriations and the Senate Finance committees. These subcommittees conduct the most in-depth review of agency budgets and develop a recommendation to go to the full House Appropriations Committee.

New Mexico – The Legislative Finance Committee develops a budget recommendation based upon agency requests and releases it concurrently with the governor’s budget recommendation in early January.

Oregon – Budgets are considered and developed by a Joint Committee on Ways and Means. Subcommittees (by budget area) make a recommendation to the full committee. Once a budget is passed by the full committee on Ways and Means it goes to either chamber of the legislature.

South Dakota – The Joint Committee on Appropriations submits a General Appropriations Act.

Texas – If the House and Senate Chambers cannot agree on a budget, five House members and five Senate members are appointed to a conference committee to negotiate a budget.

Utah – Utah has an Executive Appropriations Committee that approves appropriations bills before they are drafted. That committee receives recommendations from appropriations subcommittees.

Wisconsin – The Legislative Fiscal Bureau prepares issue papers on governor’s budget which typically include options to adopt, modify or delete individual items within governor’s budget. New provisions can also be added by the Legislature.

Wyoming – The Joint Appropriations Committee, including members of the House and the Senate, convene to develop a proposal to present to the entire legislative body.

District of Columbia – The District’s legislature (Council) is unicameral, so there is no joint legislative body.


Connecticut – Revisions are generally made to the second year of the biennial budget, effectively making the budget cycle annual in nature.


The governor’s Recommended Budget must be submitted by the second legislative day of each regular session of the Legislature. The dates of each regular session vary. In the first year of a governor’s term, the regular session begins on the first Tuesday in March. In the second and third years of a term, the regular sssion begins on the first Tuesday in February. In the fourth year of a term, the Regular Session begins on the second Tuesday in January.


By December 15th of each year, the governor must submit the proposed operating, capital, and mental health appropriation bills to the legislature. The Alaska Legislature is required by statute (AS 24.05.090) to convene in regular session annually on the third Tuesday in January. Article IX – § 12. Of The Alaska constitution states: The governor shall submit to the legislature, at a time fixed by law, a budget for the next fiscal year setting forth all proposed expenditures and anticipated income of all departments, offices, and agencies of the State. However, the actual budget deadline is in statute.


Governor’s Office sends copies or requests to legislative staff as soon as requests are determined to be complete. Governor’s budget recommendation is sometimes but seldom reflected in an introduced bill in legislature. Statutes were changed to provide annual appropriations for all agencies, beginning in FY 2020.


Amendment 86 reduces the period for which appropriation bills are valid from two fiscal years to one, requiring the General Assembly to meet in a limited fiscal session during even-numbered years to consider appropriation bills. Based on rules adopted for the fiscal session by the Arkansas Legislative Council, budgets are only to be presented for the “Big 6” Departments. All other departments have bills pre-filed based on Regular Session Recommendations. The “Big 6” departments as of 2020-2021 are: The Public School Fund, Department of Corrections, Department of Human Services, Department of Health, Department of Public Safety, and the Institutions of Higher Education.


The governor must sign the budget bill within twelve calendar days of the legislature’s passing and presenting of the bill. The length of each legislative session in California is two years, but the Legislature meets both years during the session.


Legal source for budget submission deadline – C.R.S. 2-3-208. Legislature adopts budget: Typically late April, but special bills are often later. For FY 19-20, budget bill was signed 04/18/2019, FY 2020-21 budget bill signed 06/22/2020.


The legislative session is January through June in odd-numbered years, and February through May in even-numbered years.


The governor-elect may prepare a statement of any recommendation or suggestion in connection with the proposed budget and such statement shall be presented to the General Assembly simultaneously with the presentation of the budget bill.


Agency hearings are meetings between the agency head and the Governor to discuss the agency’s fiscal needs for the current and upcoming fiscal years. These usually take place in November. Public hearings on the budget are held by the General Assembly after the governor submits his budget. These usually begin in late January and continue into February and March.


Governor submits budget thirty days prior to the legislature convening (legislature convenes the third Wednesday of January).


Agency requests are sent to the Legislative Services Office and are available to legislature on request. The governor may sign the budget up to 5 days after receipt of the bill passed in both legislative bodies or up to 10 days after adjournment.


By law, only 19 agencies are on a biennial budget basis.


A limited number of supplemental appropriation recommendations for the second year of the budget cycle may be included in the subsequent biennial budget recommendation. Governor signs, line-item vetoes, or lets become law without signature within 10 days after presentment.


Agency request submitted to governor statutorily no later than November 15, but typically by November 1 or October 15. Governor signs budget: A bill, except a joint resolution, becomes law if the governor signs it or if he fails to sign or veto it within ten days after delivery to him if the legislature is in session on the tenth day after such delivery, or within twenty days if the tenth day after delivery occurs after the legislature is adjourned. Public hearings held during the legislative session by the House Appropriations Committee and Senate Finance Committee. Regarding how many votes in the legislature are required to pass the budget: Majority elected; Two-Thirds elected of House of Representatives if one-time money is included.


1) The Legislature shall convene on the first Wednesday of December following the general election in what shall be designated the first regular session of the Legislature; and shall further convene on the first Wednesday following the first Tuesday of January in the subsequent even-numbered year in what shall be designated the second regular session of the Legislature.

2) The necessary vote for enactment is usually a simple majority, but emergency bills and bills excepted from the mandate provision of the State Constitution require a two-thirds majority of the entire elected membership of each body; referenda for bond issues and constitutional amendments require a two-thirds vote of those members present. Legal source for budget submission deadline – 5 MRSA, §1665 and §1666.


According to the Department of Legislative Services, Maryland General Assembly: “Section 52 of Article III of the Constitution of Maryland prohibits the General Assembly from increasing any budget item or adding any new appropriations item to the governor’s operating budget for Executive Branch agencies. The General Assembly can decrease an appropriation for any branch of State government and increase appropriations relating only to the legislature or Judiciary. Under current provisions of the Constitution, the budget bill is enacted immediately upon passage by both houses of the General Assembly, without further action by the Governor. The Maryland General Assembly is one of only a few state legislatures that does not have the authority to increase or add an item of appropriation in an operating budget for the executive branch. Senate Bill 1028 proposed a constitutional amendment that was approved by the voters at the 2020 general election, which will require the budget bill to be presented to the governor for approval or disapproval. It will also authorize the General Assembly, beginning with the fiscal 2024 operating budget, to increase appropriations made by the governor and add items to appropriations for executive branch agencies. The total appropriation in the operating budget for the executive branch approved by the General Assembly cannot exceed the total proposed appropriation for the executive branch submitted by the governor. The amendment further authorizes the governor to veto items increased or added by the General Assembly for executive branch agencies. The General Assembly may convene in extraordinary session to consider and vote on whether to override any vetoed items.”


1) The governor must present the budget to the legislature within 30 days after the legislature convenes in regular session (typically early January) except in a year in which a newly elected governor is inaugurated into office, when 60 days are allowed.

2) The concurrence of a majority of members elected to and serving in each house is required to pass a budget bill. The assent of two-thirds of the members is required for the appropriation of public money or property for local or private purposes, and to have a bill take effect immediately.


Minnesota typically issues three sets of budget instructions. One for background materials (narratives), another related to budget system implementation and another providing specifics on the governor’s budget process. Public hearings are not held on the governor’s budget development. The state constitution defines when the legislature convenes in the first year of the biennium. The first year is the second Tuesday following the first Monday in January. Legislative leaders determine the start date for the second year of the biennium (typically in January).


The executive budget is submitted in January during the first year of a governor’s term. The governor does not hold separate agency hearings (from legislative hearings). Agency requests are submitted to the Legislative Budget Office, representative of the Legislature. The governor signs budget: Within five (5) days (Sundays excepted) after approval. Miss. Const. Ann. Art. 4, § 72.


The Governor does not hold official agency or public hearings. The General Assembly holds agency hearings, usually from January – April and public hearings usually from January – February. There is constitutional authority for annual and biennial budgeting.


Agency hearings prior to presentation of the governor’s recommendations are not mandated nor typically held though informal discussions take place regularly. The time period indicated for public hearings is in reference to the public hearings held by the legislative branch. The executive branch receives public input through regular, daily contact with the governor, the Governor’s Office staff, and with the budget agency.


Date agency budget requests due to budget: Nevada Revised Statutes (NRS) 353.210 Governor submits budget to Legislature: not later than 14 calendar days before the start of the regular biennial Legislative session, which starts the first Monday of February of odd-numbered years. Session start: Nevada Constitution ARTICLE. 4. – Legislative Department Sec. 2. Budget submittal to Legislature: NRS 353.230


The New Hampshire legislature is elected for a two year term yet meets in regular session each year. All agency budget requests are made public and placed online after October 1-even year.


New Jersey’s legislative session continues throughout the year. The date used for “Legislature convenes” refers to the start of the legislative budget hearings. Public hearings coincide with the legislative sessions.


Legislature adopts budget in Mid-February (even years); Early-March (odd years).


The governor submits the budget to the legislature on or before the second Tuesday in January, following the first day of the annual meeting of the legislature (typically mid-January). By mid-March, each house submits their own budget proposals prior to negotiations and budget enactment.


Budget instructions for budget preparation are sent to agencies.


The governor submits the budget to the legislature during their organizational session the first week of December. The actual date varies. An outgoing governor submits the budget the first week of December. The incoming governor only makes amendments to the budget as submitted. There is no specific deadline to submit amendments. If an emergency clause is included in the measure, to allow spending to occur immediately, a two-thirds vote is required. Prior to the 2017 legislative session, the governor’s bills were introduced.


The governor submits the budget to the legislature during their organizational session the first week of December. The actual date varies. An outgoing governor submits the budget the first week of December. The incoming governor only makes amendments to the budget as submitted. There is no specific deadline to submit amendments. If an emergency clause is included in the measure, to allow spending to occur immediately, a two-thirds vote is required. Prior to the 2017 legislative session, the governor’s bills were introduced.


Public hearings refers to Legislative hearings. The Executive Branch does not hold any public hearings.


The governor’s budget is submitted in February, except in a governor’s first term when it is submitted in March.


Agency budget requests for some smaller agencies are submitted in September. Agency hearings refers to internal meetings with agencies to review budget requests and proposed recommendations prior to official budget submission.


Reference is to 1.5: SC Code of Laws 11-11-90 requires joint development of the budget by both chambers in a public forum.


The governor submits the budget on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in December.


Agency requests submitted to legislature: February (after the budget document is presented to the Legislature)/March if after an administration change.


The state constitution prescribes a biennial legislature; in practice, the legislature meets annually, in regular and adjourned sessions. The governor submits proposed statutory language, spreadsheets, and supporting documentation, which collectively comprise the governor’s recommended budget. Budget submission deadline legal source: 32 VSA §306(a). The department’s budget system contains a compiled state budget that reconciles to that recommendation. The package of governor’s documents is reviewed first by the appropriations committee in the Vermont House of Representatives. Until the House appropriations committee makes its changes and votes its version of the budget out of committee, there is no bill to be acted upon.


New governors are not required to present a budget, so there is no deadline, but in practice they do present a new budget, usually about 6-8 weeks after they take office in early January. Agency budget instructions sent out in June for biennial budget in even-numbered years and in September for supplemental requests every year. OFM receives budget submittals and provides on-line access to the Legislature and others (Biennial budget: late August to early September; Supplemental: late September). Budget submission deadline legal source: X RCW 43.88. Legislature adopts budget between April and June, frequently requiring extra sessions beyond the regular session.


Budget Office hearings are open to the public. There is a Conference Committee of the two chambers for final budget bill.


While new governors are not provided an extended budget deadline, Wisconsin statutes provide a mechanism for a governor to request, and the legislature to approve by joint resolution, a later budget deadline.


Substitute “mayor” for “governor” for the District of Columbia. After the legislature passes and the mayor signs the budget, the District sends it to Congress for final approval.