Table 3.6

Senate Leadership Positions: Methods of Selection


FIPS State or other
jurisdiction
President President pro tem Majority leader Assistant majority leader Majority floor leader Assistant majority floor leader Majority whip Majority caucus chair Minority leader Assistant minority leader Minority floor leader Assistant minority floor leader Minority whip Minority caucus chair
01Alabama (b)*(a)ES(b)(b)
02AlaskaESECECECECECEC
04ArizonaESAPECECECECEC
05Arkansas(a)ESECECECEC
06California(a)ESECECECECECEC
08ColoradoESESECECECECECECECEC
09Connecticut (pp)(a)ESECAT (nn)EC (oo)AL (m)AL (c)
10Delaware(a)ESECECECEC
12Florida (ll)*EC/ESESAPALECECALAL
13Georgia(a)ESECECECECECEC
15HawaiiESES (e)ECECECECEC
16Idaho(a)ESECECECECECEC
17IllinoisESAPAPAPAPAPECALALAL
18Indiana(a)ESATATATECECEC(h)(h)EC
19IowaESESECECECECECEC
20KansasESES (e)ECECECECECECECEC
21Kentucky (i)ESESECECECECEC
22LouisianaESES
23MaineESESECECECEC
24Maryland*ESESAP (n)AP (n)AP (n)(n)APAPEC (o)(o)EC
25Massachusetts*ECAPAP(p)EC(p)
26Michigan (q)(a)ESECECECECECECECECECECECEC
27MinnesotaESESECECALECECEC
28Mississippi*(a)ES
29Missouri (d)(a)ESECECECECECECECEC
30Montana*ESESECEC (j)ECECEC (l)EC
31Nebraska (U)(g)(a)ES (r)
32Nevada (s)(a)ESECECEC (s)ECECEC
33New HampshireESAPAPAP (rr)APEC (ss)AL (tt)
34New JerseyESESMAMAMAMAMAMAMIMIMIMIMIMI
35New Mexico(a)ESEC (t)EC (t)ECECEC (t)EC (t)ECEC
36New York (u)*(a)ES(v)AT (v)AT (v)ATAT (v)EC (v)AL (v)AL (v)AL (v)AL (v)AL (v)
37North Carolina (uu)(a)ESECECECECECEC
38North Dakota(a)ESECECECECECECEC
39Ohio (w)(x)ES (x)ESESESES (x)ESES
40Oklahoma(a)ESECECECECECECECECECECECEC
41OregonESESECECECECECEC
42PennsylvaniaESESECECECECECECECECECECECEC
44Rhode Island (y)ESESECALALECALAL
45South Carolina*(a)ESECEC
46South Dakota(a)ESECECECECECEC
47TennesseeESAPECECECECECECEC
48Texas(a)ESEC (k)EC (k)
49Utah (z)ESALECECECEC
50Vermont(a)ESECECEC (aa)EC (aa)EC (aa)EC (aa)ECECEC (aa)EC (aa)EC (aa)EC (aa)
51Virginia(a)ESEC (bb)EC (bb)ECECECEC
53Washington (cc)(a)ESECECECECECECECECECECECEC
54West VirginiaESAPAPAPECAL
55WisconsinES (dd)ESECECECECECEC
56WyomingESES (e)ECECECEC
11Dist. of Columbia (U)*(ee)(ff)
60American Samoa*ESES
66Guam (U)(gg)*ES (r)ES (e)ECECECECECECECECECEC
69CNMI* **ES (hh)(hh)ES (ii)EC
72Puerto Rico*ES (p)ECECEC (jj)(kk)EC (p)EC (jj)(p)
78U.S. Virgin Islands (U)*ESESESESES

Source:

The Council of State Governments' survey of state legislative service agencies, 2022.

Notes:

In some states, the leadership positions in the Senate are not empowered by the law or by the rules of the chamber, but rather by the party members themselves.

Key:

* Information from The Council of State Governments’ 2020 survey of state legislative services agencies and 2021 review of state websites.
** Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands.
ES — Elected or confirmed by all members of the Senate.
EC — Elected by party caucus.
AP — Appointed by president.
AT — Appointed by president pro tempore.
AL — Appointed by party leader.
MA — Elected by majority party.
MI — Elected by minority party.
(U) — Unicameral legislative body.
✕ — Position does not exist or is not selected on a regular basis.

Footnotes:

(a) Lieutenant governor is president of the Senate by virtue of the office. Idaho - (Idaho Const. art.IV, § 13, Senate Rule 1.).
(b) Majority leader elected by the members of the majority party. Minority leader elected by members of the minority party. Additional leadership positions: deputy president pro tempore - appointed by Committee on Assignments and Dean of Senate - appointed by Committee on Assignments.
(c) Authorization implied from constitution and statute as recognized by 63 ops. Cal. Atty. Gen. 583.
(d) Implied from Constitution.
(e) Constitution, statute, implied, case law, common law.
(f) Executive clemency.
(g) Only for EROs. When an ERO is submitted the legislature has 30 days to veto the ERO or it becomes law.
(h) Can reorganize, but not create.
(i) Executive Orders are filed in the Department of State.
(j) To impound or freeze certain state matching funds.
(k) To reduce state expenditures in revenue shortfall.
(l) Inherent.
(m) To control procedures for dealing with public.
(n) Reorganization plans and agency creation.
(o) Executive reorganizations not effective if rejected by both houses of legislature within 60 calendar days. Executive orders reducing appropriations not effective unless approved by appropriations committees of both houses of legislature.
(p) To assign duties to lieutenant governor, issue writ of special election.
(q) Filing.
(r) Governor is exempt from the Administrative Procedures Act and filing and administrative procedures Miss. Code Ann. § 25-43-102 (1972).
(s) Reorganization plans and agency creation and for meeting federal program requirements. To administer and govern the armed forces of the state.
(t) In addition to filing and publication procedures - Executive Orders are countersigned by and filed with the Secretary of State and published.
(u) To administer and govern the armed forces of the state.
(v) Must submit to the Secretary of State who must compile, index and publish Executive Orders. Copies must also be sent to President of the Senate, Speaker of House and Principal Clerk of each chamber.
(w) To suspend certain officials and/or other civil actions.
(x) To designate game and wildlife areas or other public areas.
(y) Appointive powers.
(z) Executive authority implied by constitution except for emergencies which are established by statute.
(aa) General power to issue executive orders to execute the authority of the Governor as provided in the Constitution and state statute.
(bb) The governor has the authority, through state statute , to enact executive orders that: create agencies, boards and commissions; and reassigns agencies, boards and commissions to different cabinet secretaries. However, in order for the continued operation of any agency created by executive order the state legislature must approve legislation that allows the agency to continue to operate, if not, the agency cannot continue operation beyond sine die adjournment of the legislature for the session.
(cc) Washington Senate also has the leadership position of vice-president pro tem.
(dd) For fire emergencies.
(ee) To transfer funds in an emergency.
(ff) Subject to legislative approval when inconsistent with statute.
(gg) Only if reorganization order is filed with the legislature.
(hh) Some statutes set forward requirements for executive orders, but few established procedures.
(jj) The governor has power to direct the Department of Administration to conduct investigations of any executive or administrative agency in order to determine feasibility of consolidating , creating or rearranging agencies for the purpose of affecting the elimination of unnecessary state functions, avoiding duplication, reducing the cost of administration and increasing efficiency. Wis. Stat. 16.004(3)(a). The governor has power to coordinate services of personnel across state agencies. Wis. Stat. 14.03.
(kk) General authority unless explicitly authorized by statute.
(ll) If executive order fits definition of rule.
(mm) In 2021, the Kentucky General Assembly passed multiple laws to limit executives orders declaring a state of emergency to 30 days without the legislature's approval or a local government's approval, to limit the Governor's authority to issue emergency orders related to certain entities, and to require the Attorney General's written approval before issuing any emergency order that suspends a statute.
(nn) All executive orders must be registered with the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State attests to and keeps a registry of the Governor's official acts.